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★ On technology and culture shifts

I was inspired by this discussion over at to leave a very long comment, which I'll repost here:

Michael B., I think that it will be a while before the mainstream press truly understands what's going on in a way that they can write coherently about it. It's one thing to notice that technology is creating a revolution. It's another thing entirely to really embrace it, understand it, and use it to the fullest. Just in the last few weeks, my understanding of how to use technology has shifted dramatically. RSS, Gmail, Flickr,, and desktop Wikis have all caused me to rethink my options for collecting and managing information. I've said for years that we're still in the dark ages when it comes to computers. I think we're a long way from living in a mature world of computer and network technology, much less really understanding it. I'm not sure many people really can see where this is going.

For instance, I'm working on a new project. I'm attempting to create a new kind of online history book. I'm developing a wiki where the narrative and encyclopedic entries about characters and events will be developed simultaneously. I'm doing this on my own right now, but will soon open it up for others to contribute, much as Wikipedia has been built by the efforts of a large community. As I develop this project, I realize that there's really no limit to what can be included in or linked to from this wiki. My long-term goal would be to have original source material for every aspect of the period I'm studying available online - a one-stop-shop, if you will, for people interested in this historical event.

Now, I'm not way out there on this. Others (like Michael Brooke, it seems) are working on similar "deep resource" projects. How will this impact culture? We're going to move from the idea that knowledge is something filtered and parsed by individuals to something that is created and managed by the group. I think this core idea has always been true, yet the methods we've had to deliver content - books, radio, television, and so on - have mostly been filtered through the narrow perspective of one person or one organization. It hasn't been practical in the past to develop and disseminate group-think. Once a book is printed, that's it until the next edition, if there is one. Any mistakes remain; ideas aren't reconsidered in the light of new evidence. Moreover, sources remain unavailable to the media consumer in many cases, so independent evaluation of an author's conclusions are impossible.

However, group-reviewed, dynamically updatable resources are available now, the tools to create these are starting to mature, and more of these resources will come online when people start to see how powerful and useful they are. Libraries are starting to digitize content like Shakespeare's quartos and Lewis Carroll's scrapbook. The balance of power in cultural filtering is shifting. It's as if gold went from being something only prospectors could locate in far-off locations to something anyone could create with their own personal alchemy machine.

(I'm also seeing a shift in the way we perceive top-down hierarchies in general. In business, for example, there are some who suggest that the wisdom of the group is more valuable and "right" in many cases than the wisdom of the manager or the CEO.)

Culture will change - back, perhaps - from something you consume to something you participate in. I've already seen a couple of wikis that attempt to facilitate group-created stories. More will follow.

Technologically speaking, we are in the midst of a mini-revolution in which computers move from being separate machines with discreet installations of data and programs (analogs of our personal experience) to "network appliances" connecting us to a world where applications data, and experience reside on the network and are easily shared. Everything will interconnect, and we will develop tools (like RSS readers) to help us manage the torrent of information. Experiences, expertise, and ideas will be shared freely.

Raymond: What can digital do? It can make all this possible. People won't simply consume. Portability and interconnectivity will open humans up to a level of collaboration that was previously impossible. Wikis and social bookmark sites like are the tip of the iceberg. This isn't a subtle shift. Once people start to grasp what's possible in an interconnected world, the sky's the limit. It's no small thing, for instance, to consider digitizing the Library of Congress so that the information contained therein is available instantly and everywhere.

Perhaps I wax rhapsodic. I tend to believe that people will use new tools in the best, most culturally enhancing way possible. It's just as likely, I suppose, that people won't. However, I am optimistic that once the infrastructure and tools are built, creative people will be called upon to use them. Culture will grow, as it always has, in the proper medium and conditions, and I like to imagine that this new medium is fertile indeed.

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